The command for plotting epicenters is EPIMAP <file>, where the optional file is a file with EPIMAP commands. If file is not given, the user will be prompted for the input. The program can plot land contours, epicenters, macroseismic intensities, stations and level contours as well as depth profiles. It is possible to zoom in on selected areas (option by Mario Villagrán). The program has been much revised by Jim Bolton.

Optionally the program can be started with flag n like epimap map.inp n to not plot info on left side. This option is intended for making a map without the interactive options plotted.

Input files: Land contours and other contours

The program will look for all files ending with .MAP located in the DAT directory. The user can then choose any one or a combination of files. The users own contour files (e.g. faults) can be added to the DAT directory. A very detailed world map is available on the SEISAN CD and on the SEISAN web site. Areas can be selected out of these files with program SELMAP.


Epimap will look in STATION0.HYP for station coordinates. It will search first in the working directory, then in DAT.


The user will be prompted for epicenter input files. The format can be Nordic or Nordic compact. Magnitudes are plotted proportional with symbol size unless the ellipticity option is selected in which case the error ellipses are plotted (if smaller than 100 km). Fault plane solutions can optionally be plotted instead of error ellipses. The first fault plan esolution found in file will be used. Name of intensity files (SEISAN standard format, see Appendix A) are also entered here. The file name must have the 3 letters `mac' after the `.' See also section 42.

Input files for EPIMAP can be made e.g. with the COLLECT command which collects S-files into one file or with the SELECT command selecting data from the database using several criteria. HYP also generates a CAT-file (hyp.out) which may be used as input to EPIMAP.

Macoseismic information

EPIMAP can plot SEISAN macroseismic observations, see section 42.


The program will read all 3 magnitudes (magnitude1, magnitude2 and magnitude3) in the header line. It will use the first non-zero magnitude in the order magnitude1, magnitude3 and magnitude2. Epimap will search the first header line only. If it is desired to use a particular magnitude from any header line for plotting, use MAG program first to select particular magnitude type which is then placed in first header line magnitude position one. Program NORHEAD can move magnitudes from following header lines to the first line. Program REPORT can move magnitudes around on the header line.

A typical run is as follows, comment after !:

Projection menu

   1: POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC     conformal, azimuthal             
   2: ORTHOGRAPHIC            view from infinity, azimuthal    
   3: MERCATOR                cylindrical, conformal           
   4: LAMBERT EQUAL AREA      azimuthal                        
   5: GNOMONIC                Great Circles are straight lines 
   6: AZIMUTHAL EQUIDISTANT   distance from origin is to SCALE$ 
   7: STEREOGRAPHIC           conformal, azimuthal             
   9: OBLIQUE MERCATOR        cylindrical, conformal           
  10: MOLLWEIDE ELLIPTICAL    pseudocylindrical, equal area    
  11: SANSON'S SINUSOIDAL     pseudocylindrical, equal Area    

Please enter projection number   :  3
Enter latitude  range of the map :  60 70    ! N  positive
Enter longitude range of the map :  0 30     ! E  positive

Center of geographical map space is ( 65.0,  15.0) degrees.      
         ! can be used e.g. to make an accurate MERCATOR at high latitude
 Press <return> to accept these as the reference latitude 
 longitude for the projection or <N>o to enter your own
co ordinates :  

 Enter latitude of any grid line and also the grid spacing
:  60 2      ! possible to have grid spacing at any value
 Enter longitude of any grid line and also the grid spacing
:  0 4

	  ! a sequential number will be plotted besides each hypocenter, the     !
corresponding hypocenters are found in output file epimap.out.

Plot title (max 60 chars), or press <return> for none:  
Plot error ellipses: e or fps: f (n=return)?:       ! from HYP or fps programs
File name for contour levels, or press <return> for none: ! format below  
Plot place names (P) or                             ! file format below
Plot all (a) or some (s) stations with a label, ! if s, question given about 
                                ! which station, give in UPPER CASE all stations
without a label (X), or none <return>
...Enter in uppercase if you wish the symbols to be filled
and this facility is available...     ! only filled out in Postscript

Available colour index values are:
           1) Blue           
           2) Green          
           3) Red            
           4) Yellow         
           5) White          
           6) Black (default)

 Enter epicenter filename and colour index,
 separated by a blank, otherwise press <return>
collect.out 2              ! plot first file green

 Input file is Nordic      ! full Nordic format of input file

 Enter epicenter filename and colour index,
 separated by a blank, otherwise press <return>
select.out  3              ! plot second file red

 Input file is Compact     ! compact file format of input file

 Enter epicenter filename and colour index,
 separated by a blank, otherwise press <return>

 Enter the following in uppercase if you wish the symbols 
 to be filled and this facility is available...
 By default, symbols will be plotted according to 
 magnitude, do you wish them to be plotted according 
 to magnitude range ?

==== Loading Epicenters...

! now comes the plot, see below for options

 Earthquake locations inside the window are in epimap.out
 Coordinates of the surrounding area are in epimap.cor
 Area selected epicenters are in epimap.are
 Plot file is called epimap.eps

Interactive options:

When the plot is shown, there appears in the lower left-hand corner a menu of several options:

Q: Quit
P: Profile
A: Area
Z: Zoom

Press one of the letters to continue.

P: Profile

One or several depth section windows can now be selected with the cursor. First move the cursor to where the section shall start (from where distances are calculated), press any character to select point, move cursor to end of profile, press any character to select. A line between the two points is now plotted. Move the cursor to a point on the side of the line and press any character. A rectangle defined by the three points is now drawn, which defines the area used for the section. If more than one section is wanted (up to 9), press the number of sections instead. The selected number of profile boxes will now be plotted, all the same size. Pressing any character will draw the depth sections auto scaled, while PRESSING THE CHARACTER F, THE X AND Y SCALES ARE EQUAL and determined by the horizontal extension. When the first section appears, you can either press q to quit or any other character to plot next profile or, if the last profile, replot epicenter map and select new sections. IF YOU WANT ALL SECTIONS TO REMAIN IN PLOT FILE, QUIT AFTER PLOTTING THE LAST PROFILE. The plot file always stores what has been plotted so far, and is overwritten when a replot is made. It is also possible to plot a previously defined profile by entering O. The parameters are then taken from file profile.out. This file stores the last parameters selected by EPIMAP, but can also be edited by the user.

A: Area

Select, by clicking with the cursor, at least 3 points defining a polygon within which epicenters are selected. A new plot is made enclosing only the polygon and showing the epicenters within the polygon. The corresponding epicenters (S-files) are in file epimap.are. Known bug: Sometimes epicenters are still left outside, SELECT can be used instead.

Z: Zoom

Similar to Area, however a rectangle is selected by defining just the 2 diagonal corners. Note, you can also zoom out by selcting zoom points at extreme corners of the plot outside the map.

MAP files The map files consist of blocks of coordinate pairs. Each block starts with the number of pairs in the block. The format of the header line is i4 and the following lines 10f8.3. Thus each block can at most have 9999 pairs.

Plotting place names If option P is used when the program asks for place names or station codes, the user will be prompted for one or several files with place names. The place name file format is:

name latitude_degrees longitude degrees


    55.94422  3.20096    Edingburgh

The first 24 characters are for the latitude and longitude. The text must begin in column 25 or later.

NOTE: The format changed with SEISAN version 12.0.

An example of a place name file is place_names.macro located in DAT.

Epimap contour file

EPIMAP has a simple contouring routine accepting a regular spaced grid. Below is an example (output from EQRSEI). The top part of the file is just comments, the data starts at "Fields to use". The data must come in longitude, latitude pairs (+ value of contour) in order as shown below. The contour value is plotted exactly as shown below. E. g. the value 117 is plotted as __117_____ where "_" is blank. By specifying ____117.0_, the value would be plotted as 117.0 and moved one space to the left on the plot. The example below is from an older version of SEISAN which had a program for making hazard maps. Currently the only program for making a contour file is HYP when it is used for making a gridsearch. In the DAT directory, there is an example of a gridsearch.out file made with HYP.

NB: In the input file shown below, the FIRST COLUMN MUST BE blank.

 This file is input for epimap contour plotting. The input of  
 parameters must appear as listed below with the actual data   
 starting after the line Fields to use. There can be any       
 number of header lines. The contour values plotted are        
 plotted with the number of decimals given below. The last     
 part of the file is the actual longitudes, latitudes and       
 levels. Color use is optional and the field can be left       
 blank, the codes are as follows:                              
 1: blue   2: green   3: red   4: yellow   5: white   6: black 

 Fields to use                          I.........I.........I.........I   
 Contour level to plot and color           117           2.0
 Contour level to plot and color           119           3.0
 Contour level to plot and color           121    
 Contour level to plot and color           123    
 Contour level to plot and color           125    
 Contour level to plot and color           127    
 Contour level to plot and color           129    
 Contour level to plot and color           131    
 Contour level to plot and color           133    
 Contour level to plot and color           135    
    5.00000    40.0000    117.620
    6.00000    40.0000    118.490
    7.00000    40.0000    119.080
    8.00000    40.0000    119.390
    9.00000    40.0000    119.390
   10.00000    40.0000    119.080
    11.0000    40.0000    118.490
    12.0000    40.0000    117.630
    13.0000    40.0000    116.510
    14.0000    40.0000    115.180
    5.00000    41.0000    119.680
    6.00000    41.0000    120.620
    7.00000    41.0000    121.260
    8.00000    41.0000    121.600

EPIMAP output files:

epimap.out: Gives a numbered list of all events within main window. This can be used in connection with the number option.

epimap.cor and epimap.are: If option A (selecting area) has been used, the coordinates of the corners will be given in epimap.cor and the complete events (S-files) within the selected area, in epimap.are.

epimap.are: Events selected with area function.

epimap.num: A compact file of epimap.out with the numbers plotted.

epimap.eps: Postscript plot file of epicenters and possible profiles. If only one profile has been selected, all is on one page. If several profiles are selected, there will be two profiles per page up to a maximum of 6 pages (one with map and 5 with profiles).

epimap.inp: This file is storing all input parameters of the run and can be used to run epimap again without entering any parameters. The file can be edited if a run has to be repeated with e.g. a new epicenter file. The file can have any name so several predefined plot definitions can be stored and thereby automate map production.

profile.out: The file stores the parameters used with the profiles. The file is overwritten for each new profile parameter selection. An example is:

  17.99949 -71.54082  18.99619 -71.55782  18.44856 -71.99660
   18.0063782      -71.0928040    
   17.9925880      -71.9888306    
   18.9893341      -72.0058365    
   19.0030403      -71.1098099

The first line gives latitude and longitude of the 3 points used for selecting profile (see explanation for interactive section), next line the azimuth calculated for the profile. The third line gives the number of profiles. The following 4 lines are the coordinates (lat,lon) of the map of the profile. The file can be used to repeat the same profile as in an earlier run or to predefine a more exact profile than can be selected with the cursor. The file can also be used to plot the location of the profile with other programs.

profile.num: Output of distance and depth of the profile in km. Distance is only correct in unzoomed plots.

Problems: Known bug: When selecting events with polygon, sometimes some events remain outside

Figure 10.1 and Figure 10.2 shows examples of plots made with EPIMAP.

Figure 10.1: An example of using EPIMAP. The top shows epicenters plotted and the bottom the first of a series of profiles. The frames on the top plot show the location of the profiles. Top left shows how many events there are in the input file and how many are plotted. Events not plotted is either because they are outside the map or because the event has no location.

Figure 10.2: An example of using EPIMAP with area selection. The top plot shows where the area is selected, while the bottom plot shows the selected area.