The command for plotting epicenters is EPIMAP <file>, where the optional file is a file with EPIMAP commands. If file is not given, the user will be prompted for the input. The program can plot land contours, epicenters, macroseismic intensities, stations and level contours as well as depth profiles. It is possible to zoom in on selected areas (option by Mario Villagrán). The program has been much revised by Jim Bolton.
Optionally the program can be started with flag n like epimap map.inp n to not plot info on left side. This option is intended for making a map without the interactive options plotted.
Input files: Land contours and other contours
The program will look for all files ending with .MAP located in the DAT directory. The user can then choose any one or a combination of files. The users own contour files (e.g. faults) can be added to the DAT directory. A very detailed world map is available on the SEISAN CD and on the SEISAN web site. Areas can be selected out of these files with program SELMAP.
Epimap will look in STATION0.HYP for station coordinates. It will search first in the working directory, then in DAT.
The user will be prompted for epicenter input files. The format can be Nordic or Nordic compact. Magnitudes are plotted proportional with symbol size unless the ellipticity option is selected in which case the error ellipses are plotted (if smaller than 100 km). Fault plane solutions can optionally be plotted instead of error ellipses. The first fault plan esolution found in file will be used. Name of intensity files (SEISAN standard format, see Appendix A) are also entered here. The file name must have the 3 letters `mac' after the `.' See also section 42.
Input files for EPIMAP can be made e.g. with the COLLECT command which collects S-files into one file or with the SELECT command selecting data from the database using several criteria. HYP also generates a CAT-file (hyp.out) which may be used as input to EPIMAP.
EPIMAP can plot SEISAN macroseismic observations, see section 42.
The program will read all 3 magnitudes (magnitude1, magnitude2 and magnitude3) in the header line. It will use the first non-zero magnitude in the order magnitude1, magnitude3 and magnitude2. Epimap will search the first header line only. If it is desired to use a particular magnitude from any header line for plotting, use MAG program first to select particular magnitude type which is then placed in first header line magnitude position one. Program NORHEAD can move magnitudes from following header lines to the first line. Program REPORT can move magnitudes around on the header line.
A typical run is as follows, comment after !:
Projection menu =============== 1: POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC conformal, azimuthal 2: ORTHOGRAPHIC view from infinity, azimuthal 3: MERCATOR cylindrical, conformal 4: LAMBERT EQUAL AREA azimuthal 5: GNOMONIC Great Circles are straight lines 6: AZIMUTHAL EQUIDISTANT distance from origin is to SCALE$ 7: STEREOGRAPHIC conformal, azimuthal 8: EQUIDISTANT CYLINDRICAL 9: OBLIQUE MERCATOR cylindrical, conformal 10: MOLLWEIDE ELLIPTICAL pseudocylindrical, equal area 11: SANSON'S SINUSOIDAL pseudocylindrical, equal Area Please enter projection number : 3 Enter latitude range of the map : 60 70 ! N positive Enter longitude range of the map : 0 30 ! E positive Center of geographical map space is ( 65.0, 15.0) degrees. ! can be used e.g. to make an accurate MERCATOR at high latitude Press <return> to accept these as the reference latitude longitude for the projection or <N>o to enter your own co ordinates : Enter latitude of any grid line and also the grid spacing : 60 2 ! possible to have grid spacing at any value Enter longitude of any grid line and also the grid spacing : 0 4 DO YOU WANT THE EVENTS NUMERATED? (Y/N=RETURN) ! a sequential number will be plotted besides each hypocenter, the ! corresponding hypocenters are found in output file epimap.out. Plot title (max 60 chars), or press <return> for none: Plot error ellipses: e or fps: f (n=return)?: ! from HYP or fps programs File name for contour levels, or press <return> for none: ! format below Plot place names (P) or ! file format below Plot all (a) or some (s) stations with a label, ! if s, question given about ! which station, give in UPPER CASE all stations without a label (X), or none <return> ...Enter in uppercase if you wish the symbols to be filled and this facility is available... ! only filled out in Postscript : Available colour index values are: 1) Blue 2) Green 3) Red 4) Yellow 5) White 6) Black (default) Enter epicenter filename and colour index, separated by a blank, otherwise press <return> collect.out 2 ! plot first file green Input file is Nordic ! full Nordic format of input file Enter epicenter filename and colour index, separated by a blank, otherwise press <return> select.out 3 ! plot second file red Input file is Compact ! compact file format of input file Enter epicenter filename and colour index, separated by a blank, otherwise press <return> Enter the following in uppercase if you wish the symbols to be filled and this facility is available... By default, symbols will be plotted according to magnitude, do you wish them to be plotted according to magnitude range ? ==== Loading Epicenters... ! now comes the plot, see below for options Earthquake locations inside the window are in epimap.out Coordinates of the surrounding area are in epimap.cor Area selected epicenters are in epimap.are Plot file is called epimap.eps
When the plot is shown, there appears in the lower left-hand corner a menu of several options:
Press one of the letters to continue.
One or several depth section windows can now be selected with the cursor. First move the cursor to where the section shall start (from where distances are calculated), press any character to select point, move cursor to end of profile, press any character to select. A line between the two points is now plotted. Move the cursor to a point on the side of the line and press any character. A rectangle defined by the three points is now drawn, which defines the area used for the section. If more than one section is wanted (up to 9), press the number of sections instead. The selected number of profile boxes will now be plotted, all the same size. Pressing any character will draw the depth sections auto scaled, while PRESSING THE CHARACTER F, THE X AND Y SCALES ARE EQUAL and determined by the horizontal extension. When the first section appears, you can either press q to quit or any other character to plot next profile or, if the last profile, replot epicenter map and select new sections. IF YOU WANT ALL SECTIONS TO REMAIN IN PLOT FILE, QUIT AFTER PLOTTING THE LAST PROFILE. The plot file always stores what has been plotted so far, and is overwritten when a replot is made. It is also possible to plot a previously defined profile by entering O. The parameters are then taken from file profile.out. This file stores the last parameters selected by EPIMAP, but can also be edited by the user.
Select, by clicking with the cursor, at least 3 points defining a polygon within which epicenters are selected. A new plot is made enclosing only the polygon and showing the epicenters within the polygon. The corresponding epicenters (S-files) are in file epimap.are. Known bug: Sometimes epicenters are still left outside, SELECT can be used instead.
Similar to Area, however a rectangle is selected by defining just the 2 diagonal corners. Note, you can also zoom out by selcting zoom points at extreme corners of the plot outside the map.
MAP files The map files consist of blocks of coordinate pairs. Each block starts with the number of pairs in the block. The format of the header line is i4 and the following lines 10f8.3. Thus each block can at most have 9999 pairs.
Plotting place names If option P is used when the program asks for place names or station codes, the user will be prompted for one or several files with place names. The place name file format is:
name latitude_degrees longitude degrees
55.94422 3.20096 Edingburgh
The first 24 characters are for the latitude and longitude. The text must begin in column 25 or later.
NOTE: The format changed with SEISAN version 12.0.
An example of a place name file is place_names.macro located in DAT.
Epimap contour file
EPIMAP has a simple contouring routine accepting a regular spaced grid. Below is an example (output from EQRSEI). The top part of the file is just comments, the data starts at "Fields to use". The data must come in longitude, latitude pairs (+ value of contour) in order as shown below. The contour value is plotted exactly as shown below. E. g. the value 117 is plotted as __117_____ where "_" is blank. By specifying ____117.0_, the value would be plotted as 117.0 and moved one space to the left on the plot. The example below is from an older version of SEISAN which had a program for making hazard maps. Currently the only program for making a contour file is HYP when it is used for making a gridsearch. In the DAT directory, there is an example of a gridsearch.out file made with HYP.
NB: In the input file shown below, the FIRST COLUMN MUST BE blank.
This file is input for epimap contour plotting. The input of parameters must appear as listed below with the actual data starting after the line Fields to use. There can be any number of header lines. The contour values plotted are plotted with the number of decimals given below. The last part of the file is the actual longitudes, latitudes and levels. Color use is optional and the field can be left blank, the codes are as follows: 1: blue 2: green 3: red 4: yellow 5: white 6: black Fields to use I.........I.........I.........I Contour level to plot and color 117 2.0 Contour level to plot and color 119 3.0 Contour level to plot and color 121 Contour level to plot and color 123 Contour level to plot and color 125 Contour level to plot and color 127 Contour level to plot and color 129 Contour level to plot and color 131 Contour level to plot and color 133 Contour level to plot and color 135 5.00000 40.0000 117.620 6.00000 40.0000 118.490 7.00000 40.0000 119.080 8.00000 40.0000 119.390 9.00000 40.0000 119.390 10.00000 40.0000 119.080 11.0000 40.0000 118.490 12.0000 40.0000 117.630 13.0000 40.0000 116.510 14.0000 40.0000 115.180 5.00000 41.0000 119.680 6.00000 41.0000 120.620 7.00000 41.0000 121.260 8.00000 41.0000 121.600 etc
EPIMAP output files:
epimap.out: Gives a numbered list of all events within main window. This can be used in connection with the number option.
epimap.cor and epimap.are: If option A (selecting area) has been used, the coordinates of the corners will be given in epimap.cor and the complete events (S-files) within the selected area, in epimap.are.
epimap.are: Events selected with area function.
epimap.num: A compact file of epimap.out with the numbers plotted.
epimap.eps: Postscript plot file of epicenters and possible profiles. If only one profile has been selected, all is on one page. If several profiles are selected, there will be two profiles per page up to a maximum of 6 pages (one with map and 5 with profiles).
epimap.inp: This file is storing all input parameters of the run and can be used to run epimap again without entering any parameters. The file can be edited if a run has to be repeated with e.g. a new epicenter file. The file can have any name so several predefined plot definitions can be stored and thereby automate map production.
profile.out: The file stores the parameters used with the profiles. The file is overwritten for each new profile parameter selection. An example is:
17.99949 -71.54082 18.99619 -71.55782 18.44856 -71.99660 42.7 1 18.0063782 -71.0928040 17.9925880 -71.9888306 18.9893341 -72.0058365 19.0030403 -71.1098099
The first line gives latitude and longitude of the 3 points used for selecting profile (see explanation for interactive section), next line the azimuth calculated for the profile. The third line gives the number of profiles. The following 4 lines are the coordinates (lat,lon) of the map of the profile. The file can be used to repeat the same profile as in an earlier run or to predefine a more exact profile than can be selected with the cursor. The file can also be used to plot the location of the profile with other programs.
profile.num: Output of distance and depth of the profile in km. Distance is only correct in unzoomed plots.
Problems: Known bug: When selecting events with polygon, sometimes some events remain outside
Figure 10.1 and Figure 10.2 shows examples of plots made with EPIMAP.